As cloud data centers (DCs) serve an ever-growing demand for computation, storage, and networking capacity,
their operation is becoming a crucial issue. The energy consumption of DCs is of special importance
because of both its environmental impact and its contribution to operational costs. According to a recent
study, DC electricity consumption in the USA alone will increase to 140 billion kWh per year by 2020,
costing US businesses 13 billion USD annually in electricity bills and emitting nearly 100 million tons of
CO2 per year.In order to reduce energy consumption, DC operators use a combination of several techniques.
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